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">طباعة الصفحة خارطة الموقع الموقع الرئيسي / المحتوى المعلوماتي / اقتصاد

الموارد البشرية والتنمية الاقتصادية في الهند

الباحث:  أ / عبد الرحمن غالب نعمان مقبل
الدرجة العلمية:  ماجستير
الجامعة:  جامعة بونا
الكلية:  كلية الاقتصاد
القسم:  قسم اقتصاد
بلد الدراسة:  الهند
لغة الدراسة:  الإنجليزية
تاريخ الإقرار:  2007
نوع الدراسة:  رسالة جامعية

SUMMARY, SUGGESTIIONS AND CONCLUSION:

Summary: Human resources include the size of population. Population explosion, growth of population as a retarding factor in economic development of a county.

The population of India is growing very rapidly. The total population of India was 23.6 crores in 1891 and then it subsequently increased up to 102.0 crores on the 1st March 2001. the annual average birth rate which was 45.8 per thousand in 1981 and then it subsequently increased up to 49.2 per thousand in 1911 -20 and then the same rate gradually declined to 39.9 per thousand in 1941 -50  and then further declined to 37.2 per thousand in 1971-80, 32.6 per thousand in 1985-86, 28.9 per thousand in   1991 and finally to 25.8 per thousand in 2000.

The annual average death rate which was 44.4 per thousand in 1891 – 1900 and     48.6 per thousand in 1911 – 20 gradually declined sharply to 19.2 per thousand in   1961 – 70 and 48.6 and then again come down to 11.1 per thousand in 1985 – 86, 10 per thousand in 1991 then to 8.5 per thousand in 2000.

In India sex ratio is title less than balanced. The numbers of females per         thousand males in India were 972 in 1901, and then gradually declined 955 in 1921 , 941  in 1961, 930 in 1971, 933 in 1933 in 1981,929 in 1991 and 933 in 2001.

India has been passing through the stage of population explosion where its  population is increase in at a very high speed. Since 1921 the size of India population has become more than triple i.e. from 25 corers in 1921 to 102.7 corers by 2001.

India is an over populated country because of its inadequate increase in agricultural production, occurrence of natural occurrence of natural positive checks, poor     standard of living – growing number of unemployment etc. But some opinion were advanced that India is not an over populated country. Mahatma Gandhi once    observed, “If all laboured for their bread then there would be enough food and      leisure for all and there would be no cry of over population, no disease and misery     we see around”

On the basis of optimum theory of population, India is not overpopulated country, According to this theory by huge untapped natural resources; the per capita         income in India can be increased considerably.

Suggestions:- Human resources is the major part of economic development. Without the improvement of human resources economic development can not be possible. So for economic development and proper utilization and preservation of these resources, we have taken some steps and plan which are as-

1) People become conscious about the size of the family and also in limiting the size of their family. In order to avoid the threat of large family, people started to raise the age marriage postponing marriage as well as to limit reproduction.

2) Due to the attainment of economic development standard of living of the people reaches the high level. A significant change in social out look of the people has taken place under impact of urbanization, industrialization and high rte of literacy. Thus population become stationary at a low rate.

3) In India, the level of literacy which was only 18.3 percent in 1951 and gradually increased up to 65.38 percent in 2001 . As 2001 census, total number of literate  persons was 566 million and that of illiterate persons was 302 million. If proper measure are not taken then by 2005 A.D. the total number of illiterates will increase   by 500 million. If the growth of literacy rate in the coming decades then it would be possible to remove the illiteracy totally not before 2040 A.D. 

4) Research and development should be organized on a much wider scale.   Innovation of technology for proper utilization of the resources.

 

5) Proper education and training should be provided to the workers, these should be vocational in the rural area for the existing workers training in technical education should be provided in their place of work.

6)  The government should be taken administrative restriction of these      resources and pre plan for the development of these resources.

7)  In order to attain an all round development of the country the human      capital formation through adequate volume of investment is very much important  under the present context of development.

  Conclusion:

 Resources, which are freely rendered by the size of population of a country along  with its efficiency, educational, qualify. Productivity, organizational abilities and farsightedness are known as human resources. In order to develop its various sectors,    a country should introduce manpower planning for the development needs of the economy. Among the various types of resources. Human resources qualitative and quantitative very much required for the proper utilization of natural resources of the country.

 As per the theory of demographic transition, a country is subjected to both high    birth and death rates of an agrarian economy, the birth rate are very high birth and  death rate are very high due to universal and early marriage, illiteracy, traditional  social beliefs and customs absence of knowledge about family planning techniques   etc. people become conscious about the size of the family. There is a serious      problem of economic development is the literacy increased up to 65.38 percent in  2001. Population explosion is a typical gave situating faced by a country. Since     1921, the size of Indian population has become mo0re than tipple. It both the birth    and death rate in India maintain will double itself in next 20 years. Therefore population growth as a retarding factor for economic development in India. Thus to face the challenge of high rate growth of population in India immediate steps must      be taken both reduce the fertility rate and to enlarge the productive capacities of the country.

Economic development is not a mechanical process. It is a human enterprise and    like all human enterprises, and like all human enterprises, its out come will depend finally on the skill, the quality of attitude of the men who under take it Moreover, in order to develop the economy , human resources are must essential.



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